Top 10 disasters factsDisasters quiz
In which major European city, there is a volcano that may soon erupt?
In Naples. Lying mostly underwater, Campi Flegrei comprises 24 craters. It is one of the largest volcanoes in the world, capable of producing VEI 7 (super-colossal) eruptions. Its most recent eruption of 1538 created a new hill, Monte Nuovo.
17th January 1966 an American plane crashed near the Spanish village of Palomares. What was the valuable cargo?
Four thermonuclear bombs. The 1966 Palomares B-52 crash, or the Palomares incident, occurred when a B-52G bomber of the United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air refuelling at 31,000 feet (9,450 m) over the Mediterranean Sea. Of the four Mk28-type hydrogen bombs the B-52G carried, three were found on land, and one in the sea. The non-nuclear explosives in two of the weapons detonated upon impact with the ground, resulting in the contamination of a 2-square-kilometer (490-acre) area by plutonium.
The Boyd Massacre occurred in 1809, when natives killed and ate between 66 and 70 crew members of the ship Boyd. Where did it happen?
In New Zealand. The attack on the ship was a revenge for the whipping of a young Māori chief by the crew. According to Māori norms, this warranted a violent retribution. Cannibalism was already a regular practice in Māori wars. News of the events stopped shipping visits to to the country over the next few years.
On May 8, 1902, Ascension Day, all inhabitants of Saint-Pierre, the major city in Martinique, have died. Only two survived. What happened?
Volcano eruption. The city was covered with pyroclastic flow, consisting of superheated steam and volcanic gases, with temperatures exceeding 1,075 °C (1,967 °F). One of the survivors was held in an underground cell in the town's jail.
What is the typical source of pressure buildup inside a volcano?
Degassing of magma. The whole process begins when hot magma is lifted by convection to the magma chamber. As the pressure in the chamber is lower than deep in Earth's crust, the gas starts to release. Since degassed magma has lower density, it may then sink and be replaced with new one. This process may build up huge pressure of gases, eventually causing explosion.
What is the most explosive type of volcanic eruptions?
Plinian. According to the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the strongest types of volcanic eruptions are Plinian/Ultra-Plinian. Some of the notable examples in that category include Lake Toba, Tambora and Krakatoa.
How fast do tsunami waves travel across the open ocean?
Up to 800 km/h. Where the ocean is over 6,000 meters (3.7 miles) deep, unnoticed tsunami waves can travel at the speed of a commercial jet plane, over 800 km per hour (500 miles per hour). Tsunamis travel much slower in shallower coastal waters where their wave heights begin to increase dramatically.
Which part of Europe was affected by the worst famine in the 20th century?
Ukraine. The Holodomor was a man-made famine in the Ukrainian SR in 1932-1933. It was caused mostly by bad economic policies. Many believe that the destruction of the Ukrainian peasantry was premeditated on the part of Joseph Stalin and consider Holodomor a genocide comparable to the Holocaust. Between 2 and 5 million people starved to death despite the fact that Ukrainian lands are among the most fertile in the World.
A tragic disaster occurred during the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans motor race. The leading Mercedes flung into the crowd, killing 83 spectators. Who won the race?
Hawthorn/Bueb of Jaguar. Despite death of 83 spectators and 120 injured, the race was continued. Eight hours after the accident, while leading the race, the Mercedes team withdrew their cars. Mercedes invited Jaguar to also retire, but they declined.
What led to The Great Ireland Famine between 1845 and 1852?
Disease of potato. Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland was significantly larger than elsewhere. Due to the great poverty, the vast majority of the population sufficed with a diet of potatoes and dairy.